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List of publications.

IEEE VIS, Oklahoma
October 2022

The language for expressing comparisons is often complex and nuanced, making supporting natural language-based visual comparison a non-trivial task. To better understand how people reason about comparisons in natural language, we explore a design space of utterances for comparing data entities. We identified different parameters of comparison utterances that indicate what is being compared (i.e., data variables and attributes) as well as how these parameters are specified (i.e., explicitly or implicitly). We conducted a user study with sixteen data visualization experts and non-experts to investigate how they designed visualizations for comparisons in our design space. Based on the rich set of visualization techniques observed, we extracted key design features from the visualizations and synthesized them into a subset of sixteen representative visualization designs. We then conducted a follow-up study to validate user preferences for the sixteen representative visualizations corresponding to utterances in our design space. Findings from these studies suggest guidelines and future directions for designing natural language interfaces and recommendation tools to better support natural language comparisons in visual analytics.

October 2022

How Do We Measure Trust in Visual Data Communication? 

Hamza Elhamdadi, Aimen Gaba, Yea-Seul Kim, Cindy Xiong

Trust is fundamental to effective visual data communication between the visualization designer and the reader. Although personal experience and preference influence readers' trust in visualizations, visualization designers can leverage design techniques to create visualizations that evoke a ``calibrated trust," at which readers arrive after critically evaluating the information presented. To systematically understand what drives readers to engage in ``calibrated trust," we must first equip ourselves with reliable and valid methods for measuring trust. Computer science and data visualization researchers have not yet reached a consensus on a trust definition or metric, which are essential to building a comprehensive trust model in human-data interaction. On the other hand, social scientists and behavioral economists have developed and perfected metrics that can measure generalized and interpersonal trust, which the visualization community can reference, modify, and adapt for our needs. In this paper, we gather existing methods for evaluating trust from other disciplines and discuss how we might use them to measure, define, and model trust in data visualization research. Specifically, we discuss quantitative surveys from social sciences, trust games from behavioral economics, measuring trust through measuring belief updating, and measuring trust through perceptual methods. We assess the potential issues with these methods and consider how we can systematically apply them to visualization research.

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